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Non è necessario essere particolarmente esperti. Tuttavia, è difficile poter quantificare in termini economici la reale perdita, siccome molte persone, probabilmente, non leggerebbero neppure se dovessero pagare per avere accesso ad un libro elettronico.

Coloro che caricano sul web internet illegalmente, non agiscono in maniera disinteressata, ma per guadagnarne. Infatti, i siti su cui viene eseguito l'upload guadagnano mediante la pubblicità e gli account premium degli utenti che scaricano dati. Chi mette on line file riceve denaro dal servizio hosting, in base alla dimensioni e alle migliaia di scaricamenti. Inoltre, ne ricavano profitto le compagnie pubblicitarie che forniscono le inserzioni ai servizi di hosting e i provider di servizi finanziari attraverso cui i pagamenti possono avvenire anonimamente.

Secondo alcuni dati resi noti recentemente nel Regno Unito, l'editoria è il settore meno afflitto dai download illegali e dalla pirateria online in tutta l'industria dell'intrattenimento. La ricerca, condotta in Uk da Kantar Media, rivela che i consumatori di ebook sono quelli che hanno pagato in numero maggiore per i contenuti di cui hanno usufruito rispetto ai consumatori di altro tipo film, musica, videogames ecc. Per Richard Mollet, responsabile dell'Associazione degli Editori inglese, le "ragioni per cui i lettori preferiscono i servizi legali a quelli illegali sono la convenienza e la reperibilità".

Le vie per procurarsi ebook piratati, in effetti, sono spesso impervie e, a volte, il prezzo già basso dei libri digitali non giustifica rischi e perdite di tempo. La pirateria è un fenomeno dilagante che affligge ulteriormente l'industria culturale, già provata da anni di crisi. Spesso, molti di loro non ottengono alte entrate, tanto che un minor apporto potrebbe comportare la cessazione della loro attività produttiva. Ad esempio, in Spagna, Paese colpito dalla pirateria anche più dell'Italia, un recente rapporto della Coalición de Creadores e Industrias de Contenidos quindi non solo l'industria dei libri ha stimato che la pirateria ha distrutto 30 mila posti di lavoro diretti, ai quali si aggiungerebbero altri mila impieghi indiretti se fosse debellata.

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The draw was held on 1 December at Pot 1 contained the hosts Russia who were automatically assigned to position A1 and the best seven teams, pot 2 contained the next best eight teams, and so on for pots 3 and 4. However, teams from the same confederation still were not drawn against each other for the group stage, except that two UEFA teams could be in each group.

Initially, each team had to name a preliminary squad of 30 players but, in February , this was increased to Players in the final squad may be replaced for serious injury up to 24 hours prior to kickoff of the team's first match and such replacements do not need to have been named in the preliminary squad. For players named in the player preliminary squad, there was a mandatory rest period between 21 and 27 May , except for those involved in the UEFA Champions League Final played on 26 May.

On 29 March , FIFA released the list of 36 referees and 63 assistant referees selected to oversee matches. VAR operations for all games are operating from a single headquarters in Moscow, which receives live video of the games and are in radio contact with the on-field referees. VAR had a significant impact in several games. Russia proposed the following host cities: The bid evaluation report stated: Three of the 16 stadiums would be renovated, and 13 would be newly constructed.

In October , Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to Construction of the proposed Podolsk stadium in the Moscow region was cancelled by the regional government, and also in the capital, Otkrytiye Arena was competing with Dynamo Stadium over which would be constructed first.

The final choice of host cities was announced on 29 September The number of cities was further reduced to 11 and number of stadiums to 12 as Krasnodar and Yaroslavl were dropped from the final list.

Sepp Blatter stated in July that, given the concerns over the completion of venues in Russia, the number of venues for the tournament may be reduced from 12 to He also said, "We are not going to be in a situation, as is the case of one, two or even three stadiums in South Africa , where it is a problem of what you do with these stadiums".

They were satisfied with the progress. Of the twelve venues used, the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow and the Saint Petersburg Stadium — the two largest stadiums in Russia — were used most, both hosting seven matches. Sochi, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara all hosted six matches, including one quarter-final match each, while the Otkrytiye Stadium in Moscow and Rostov-on-Don hosted five matches, including one round-of match each.

Volgograd, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg and Saransk all hosted four matches, but did not host any knockout stage games. Base camps were used by the 32 national squads to stay and train before and during the World Cup tournament. Costs continued to balloon as preparations were underway. Platov International Airport in Rostov-on-Don was upgraded with automated air traffic control systems, modern surveillance, navigation, communication, control, and meteorological support systems.

Saransk Airport received a new navigation system; the city also got two new hotels, Mercure Saransk Centre Accor Hotels and Four Points by Sheraton Saransk Starwood Hotels as well as few other smaller accommodation facilities. The last facility commissioned was a waste treatment station in Volgograd. In Yekaterinburg, where four matches are hosted, hosting costs increased to over 7.

Preference, especially in the key areas, was given to those with knowledge of foreign languages and volunteering experience, but not necessarily to Russian nationals. Free public transport services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them.

The full schedule was announced by FIFA on 24 July without kick-off times, which were confirmed later. Russia was placed in position A1 in the group stage and played in the opening match at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow on 14 June against Saudi Arabia , the two lowest-ranked teams of the tournament at the time of the final draw.

The Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg hosted the first semi-final on 10 July and the third place play-off on 14 July. The opening ceremony took place on Thursday, 14 June , at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, preceding the opening match of the tournament between hosts Russia and Saudi Arabia.

Former Brazilian World Cup-winning striker Ronaldo walked out with a child wearing a Russia shirt. English pop singer Robbie Williams then performed two songs before he and Russian soprano Aida Garifullina performed a duet while other performers emerged, dressed in the flags of all 32 teams and carrying a sign bearing the name of each nation.

Dancers were also present. Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams groups A to H. Teams in each group played one another in a round-robin basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the knockout stage. Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico. For the first time since , Germany reigning champions did not advance past the first round.

For the first time since , no African team progressed to the second round. For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards. Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless. Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored.

All times listed below are local time. The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows: In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, extra time is played two periods of 15 minutes each and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winners.

If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament. Twelve own goals were scored during the tournament, doubling the record of six set in In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament.

The award was sponsored by Hyundai. FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data. Prize money amounts were announced in October The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme.

Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country. The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October , and selected through a design competition among university students.

A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf. The first phase of ticket sales started on 14 September , The general visa policy of Russia did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship.

A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches. Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and train service between host cities.