Factors influencing dicamba volatility

 

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Identify top-performing stocks using proprietary Twiggs Money Flow, Twiggs Momentum and powerful stock screens. However, in a field study they found that the sodium salt reduced volatilization injury to soybeans compared to the dimethylamine salt, but did not eliminate the injury Table 4.

What Is Bicipital Tenosynovitis?

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The smallest amount of rainfall 0. Effect of simulated rainfall on volatilization injury to soybean during 6 hrs of exposure in greenhouse. Effect of evaporation surface on volatilization.

Earlier research had shown that dicamba volatilization losses varied depending on the surface the herbicide was applied. In a field experiment, corn of two different heights was sprayed with 0. Soybean injury was approximately twice as great when 3 ft tall corn was treated compared to 12 in tall corn. This response is likely due a higher percentage of the spray being intercepted by corn foliage in the large corn treatment.

Effect of formulation on volatilization. Several experiments were conducted to determine the relative volatility of different formulations of dicamba. Like most other postemergence herbicides, dicamba is a weak acid that is formulated as a salt. However, in a field study they found that the sodium salt reduced volatilization injury to soybeans compared to the dimethylamine salt, but did not eliminate the injury Table 4.

Volatilization was as high, or higher, during the second day after application as during the first day after application with both formulations. Effect of dicamba formulation on volatilization injury to soybean following 0.

Time course of volatilization. Quarter acre plots of corn were treated with 0. The experiment was conducted five times to account for differences in environment.

In all trials, the greatest soybean injury occurred during the first 24 hours after application. In trials two and three, rainfall occurred within 14 hours of application and greatly reduced the response in soybeans placed near the field two or three days application. In the experiments with no rainfall within three days of application, significant injury was observed on soybeans placed near the field three days after application. In one of the trials injury was observed on the fourth day after application.

Environmental conditions play a large role in how much dicamba will move off the target site in the days following application. Greater problems can be expected when high temperatures and low relative humidities occur following application. Greater amounts of product can move from the target site when applications are delayed and made to larger corn due to greater interception of the spray by the corn canopy.

The salt used in the different dicamba products may affect the amount of dicamba likely to leave the target-site. The risk of volatilization losses is greatest in the days immediately following application, but under certain conditions it is possible for volatilization to occur several days after application.

Several people have reported more problems with off-target movement this year than in recent years. Possible reasons for these observations include: These two events would result in dicamba being applied to larger corn than normal and the dicamba being susceptible to volatilization for a longer period of time compared to years with more regular rainfall events.

There have been questions concerning the relative risk for vapor drift with different dicamba products. There are two mechanisms by which product selection could influence volatilization losses.

A tendon is a form of a fibrous tissue which connects the muscles to bones. The tendons help the bones and muscles to perform their functions and allow an individual to do activities like running, jumping, grasping, and lifting. If the tendon in any area is affected, strained, or torn then it becomes difficult for the muscles and bones of that area to carry out their functions normally.

This tendon is covered with a protective sheath known as the synovium. This synovium produces the synovial fluid which keeps the tendon well lubricated so that it carries out its activities smoothly.

Any injury to the tendons may result in malfunction of the sheath and when this occurs there may not be enough synovial fluid produced to keep the tendons lubricated which results in inflammation of the tendon sheath or what we call as tenosynovitis. Bicipital Tenosynovitis is a pathological condition in which there is inflammation of the tendon sheaths that surround the biceps tendons. Bicipital Tenosynovitis can be a result of many small tears resulting in inflammation over a period of a number of years or due to an acute injury to the biceps region.

When examining the biceps region radiologically, in cases of Bicipital Tenosynovitis there will be significant calcification of the tendon and presence of bone spurs in the intertubercular groove. In some cases surgery is also required to treat Bicipital Tenosynovitis. As stated, Biceps Tenosynovitis can be caused due to many small tears which may developed over a period of number of years along the biceps tenon which when an individual reaches middle age start to act up and cause inflammation of the tendon sheath of the biceps resulting in Biceps Tenosynovitis.

Apart from that any injury to the biceps tendon, muscle or the bone can also cause Biceps Tenosynovitis. This condition is quite common in athletes who participate in throwing events like Shot Put and Discus. Additionally, people who are involved in activities which involve a lot of repetitive movements of the hands and shoulders also tend to get Biceps Tenosynovitis.

Some of the injuries which can result in Biceps Tenosynovitis are:. In some cases, a cut or a puncture wound to the biceps tendon such as being stabled by a knife or any other sharp object in the arm or shoulder area may also result in Biceps Tenosynovitis. The tendon in the biceps region is quite vulnerable to injuries as the hand is one of the busiest parts of the body and hence inflammation of the tendon sheath or tenosynovitis is quite common in this area. Some of the symptoms of Biceps Tenosynovitis are:.

For diagnosing Biceps Tenosynovitis, a detailed physical examination of the area will be conducted. The doctor will check for presence of any swelling or tenderness. The doctor may ask the patient to move the arm to see whether there is any pain with movement of the joint.

The doctor will then order some radiological studies to rule out other conditions causing the symptoms such as arthritis.

In infection is suspected, a laboratory study will also be ordered. Once all other conditions causing the symptoms are ruled out then diagnosis of Biceps Tenosynovitis is confirmed.